Biotechnological Approach to Treat Textile Dyeing Effluents: A Critical Review Analysing the Practical Applications

Mostafizur Rahman , Zeba Tabassum

2024 / Volume 7 / Pages 125-152
Received 29 November 2023; Accepted 17 January 2024; Published 26 January 2024

Although the textile industry is one of the significant contributors to the global economy, approximately 10% of the annual global dye production, amounting to 7 × 106 tonnes and spanning a spectrum of 10,000 different dye variants, is wasted in the dyeing process and subsequently released into the environment. Following the dyeing and processing stages, this waste contributes to environmental pollution, making the textile industry account for 20% of the overall industrial water pollution worldwide. Traditional treatment of effluents is burdensome for the majority of textile units that are micro-scale enterprises. A significant challenge is that there isn’t a single, commercially viable way to efficiently treat wastewater from textile industries. Scholars from several disciplines are working together to investigate novel approaches that are assiduously directed at addressing environmental issues by minimising waste, thereby promoting sustainability, circular economy, and industrial symbiosis. This study aims to address the challenges associated with the treatment process of textile dye-related effluents by conducting a comprehensive analysis of recent research on treatment processes and advancements and exploration of biotechnological treatment methods that are focused on achieving the reuse of treated water. The review covers different processes, traditional, current and emerging techniques, and it emphasises their use in practical situations. Also, the efficiency, specificity, and environmental friendliness of different biotechnological approaches are discussed offering a comparison of their benefits and drawbacks. A holistic remediation approach is advocated by harmonizing both conventional and non-conventional treatment methods for a more comprehensive solution.

textile dyeing effluents, biotechnological approach, wastewater, remediation, nanotechnology