Synthetic Dye Application in Textiles: A Review on the Efficacies and Toxicities Involved

George Kwame Fobiri

Review
2022 / Volume 5 / Pages 180-198
Received 21 March 2022; Accepted 25 April 2022; Published 7 May 2022
https://doi.org/10.31881/TLR.2022.22

Abstract
The application of dyes in textile colouration has existed for centuries. Dyes are obtained from both natural and synthetic sources. Synthetic dyes are manufactured from chemical compounds and have been placed on a high pedestal in the textile industry due to their improved colour fastness, varied range of pigments and easy application as compared to natural dyes. However, they have been identified to be harmful to the environment and human health by researchers. When effluent containing harmful chemicals like sodium sulphide is discharged into the environment improperly, they cause a lot of diseases and hinder smooth air flow. With current submissions made by researchers on synthetic dyes application as a backbone, this review throws more light on the dangers and benefits involved in the use of synthetic dyes in the textile industry. It also touches on waste management as far as textile dyes are concerned. The application of synthetic dyes, precisely vat, reactive and sulphur dyes are highlighted in the study. With the purpose of addressing appropriate means of curbing undesired hazards caused by textile wastes water, several technological approaches to effluent treatment such as Physical, Chemical and Biological are brought to light in the study. The study recommends the adaptation of waste management principles such as the 5R hierarchy to curb environmental harm caused by synthetic dye effluents.

Keywords
textile dyeing, synthetic dyes, hazards, efficacies, effluent management

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